Weak US demand hammered coal stocks last year. American coal producers were forced to boost their exports while trying to cut back on costs. Will this strategy help coal producers win back investor confidence? Here’s why, in the short term, it probably won’t.
Weakness in the US Market
Coal stocks were among the worst performers in 2012. Arch Coal Inc (NYSE:ACI), among the largest coal producers in the US, saw its stock tumble nearly 50% last year. Alpha Natural Resources, Inc. (NYSE:ANR) shares fell more than 50%. Peabody Energy Corporation (NYSE:BTU) shares fell nearly 20%. The weakness in the domestic coal market resulted in Patriot Coal filing for bankruptcy nearly a year ago.
Coal’s lackadaisical performance was mainly driven by natural gas prices, which fell to a record low in April 2012, as the shale boom in the US boosted production. Although prices recovered, they still remained cheap.
According to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), the average wholesale price for natural gas at Henry Hub in Erath, Louisiana, was $2.77 per million British thermal units (MMbtu) in 2012. This prompted several utilities to switch from coal to natural gas. At one stage in 2012, natural gas nearly equaled coal for power generation in the US. Not surprisingly, coal stocks tumbled.
The sharp drop in domestic demand forced several US coal producers to consider overseas markets having robust demand for coal. Rapid industrialization in China has made it the biggest consumer of raw materials, including coal.
India, another major market, has one of the largest global coal reserves. However, low mining investment makes it a net importer of coal.
Coal demand in Europe has been robust as well. Peabody Energy Corporation (NYSE:BTU) recently noted that European coal generation remained strong in response to high international natural gas prices, falling nuclear generation, and reliability and cost challenges of renewable power.
Adapting to Changing Market Dynamics
Given the difficult market conditions, US coal producers have had to implement cost-cutting measures and restructure operations.
In September 2012, Alpha Natural Resources, Inc. (NYSE:ANR) outlined a plan to restructure its asset portfolio and administration to become more competitive. These measures seem to be paying off; costs and expenses during the first quarter of 2013 was $1.5 billion, down from $2 billion in the year-ago period.
Both Arch Coal and Peabody Energy Corporation (NYSE:BTU) remain focused on containing costs. Arch Coal maintained its thermal coal guidance range of 125 million to 135 million tons, but reduced its annual cash cost guidance range for two of its largest operating regions.
In the first quarter, Peabody Energy Corporation (NYSE:BTU)’s costs were lower than expected — a sign that its cost-cutting measures are having an impact. In the first quarter of 2013, the company’s adjusted EBITDA stood at $280.1 million, significantly below the $511.5 million reported for the same period last year.
The significant decline was mainly due to lower Australian Mining adjusted EBITDA, which was negatively impacted by approximately $250 million related to lower pricing, but partly offset by cost reduction.
US Demand to Rebound
In its recent report on short-term energy outlook, the EIA said that total coal consumption in the US is expected to rise 7.1% in 2013, driven by higher electricity demand and higher natural gas prices. Indeed, the rise in natural gas prices has once again boosted coal demand.